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Hemorrhage is controlled by ligating the major blood vessels and temporarily clamping the smaller ones.
Prado TM (2007)
As the peritoneum is incised, it is common in pregnant sows that peritoneal fluid is released.
The uterine wall including the diffuse placenta are gently incised over one of the fetuses.
The surgeon reaches into the lumen of the uterus to locate a fetus.
The surgeon lifts a fetus out of the incision during a Cesarean Section. The umbilical cord is still attached.
Evans LE (2009)
The next fetus is delivered via the same uterine incision. Generally, one uterine incision is required per horn.
The uterine incision is closed with a modified Cushing's pattern (the Utrecht pattern).
The live neonates are dried off and placed in a draft free environment.
Neonates with a heartbeat but poor respiratory efforts are given supplemental oxygen via the nares.
Dehiscense of the skin incision is uncommon after cesarean section in pigs. The wound is granulating in well, but must be kept clean.
Early necrosis and dehiscence of an infected skin incision after cesarean section.
Tissue necrosis may be due to the excessive use of lidocaine containing epinephrine. Left flank incision for cesarean section.
The necrotic superficial tissues are sloughing off, after infection of the skin incision in the flank.
Partial dehiscence of a left flank incision. The wound is granulating in well but must be kept clean.
Sow is recovering from a cesarean section and from burns from a heat lamp which was placed too close to the body (less than 50 cm).
Fork lifts with a platform can be used as a mobile, adjustable, and expedient surgery table.
Positioning of a dead sow at term for a Cesarean section on a necropsy table.
Smith MC (2010)
Cesarean section on a dead sow at term. Skin incision.
Smith MC (2011)
Cesarean section on a dead sow at term. No hemorrhage. Grey uterus shows through the initial peritoneal incision.
Cesarean section on a dead sow at term. No hemorrhage. Hemolytic uterus exteriorized for removal of the fetuses.
Most of the hemolytic uterus has been exteriorized.
One fetus is outlined within the uterus.
Incision along the greater curvature over one of the fetuses.
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